Access to modern, clean, affordable and sustainable energy is a critical issue in development, with an estimated 1.3 billion people in the developing world lacking access to electricity; yet its gender dimensions are rarely discussed. Women’s needs for household energy have often been overlooked in favour of larger-scale technologies oriented towards urban areas; and the reliance on cheap, traditional sources of energy such as biomass cookstoves contribute to major adverse health and environmental effects that disproportionately affect women and girls. Women are active agents of change in their roles as energy purchasers, users and innovators, and training and supporting women in developing, managing and deploying green and renewable energy technologies such as solar panels can contribute to climate change mitigation, while also providing the women with opportunities for economic advancement.